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Change of Military Control Rates Durring 2016

Jusoor for Studies issued the annual map, which shows the ratio of total and effective controlling of areas from April 2016, to December 2016, attached with a chart for changes.

The total control means entire area controlled by a party, while the effective area means the area of lands with high population, and contain active points such as airports, ports, cross points, refineries, main roads and energy sources such as (dams, rivers, oil, gas and phosphates).

It should be noted that the Russian military intervention in Syria which began in September 2015 escalated the military actions during the nine months, and the military map documented the most important military events.
It can summarize the most important developments on the ground which reflected on the control proportions of all parties (Assad forces, armed opposition forces, ISIS, The Kurdish forces), and some qualitative breakthroughs and by the following military events which arranged in chronological sequence:

1- The regime forces supported by the foreign militias, and an intensive fire cover from the Russian aviation, took control over the farms of Al-Mallah which overlooks Castello road, which is the last road of supply for opposition in the city of Al-Bab on July ,7th ,2016.
This breakthrough was an early warning, and an initial signal for what will happen in the eastern Aleppo later.

2- The armed opposition forces have made a unique breakthrough in Aleppo on 15th August through controlling over some military faculties which were like fortified castles for the regime. opposition forces break the siege over the eastern Aleppo which has happened after controlling of regime forces on Castello road.

3- On august 13th. ,2016, the alliance of democratic forces of Syria which was supported by USA, announced its full control on Manbej, northeast of Aleppo and liberation the city from ISIS.

4- In Jarablus, the Turkish military intervention on 24 august 2016, the artillery support and air support from the Turkish forces to the armed opposition factions led to expulsion the ISIS out of Jarablus and free a large number of surrounding villages from controlling of Kurdish protection units, to increase the total and effective controlling ratio of the free Syrian army.
5- At the end of august, the regime signed an agreement with the armed opposition in Darya led to exit all fighters to Idleb and move the civilians to the surrounding areas after 4 years of hunger and siege.

6- On September ,4th.2016, The Russian and Syrian's regime aviation Concentrated their brutal shelling on eastern neighborhoods of Aleppo in preparation for an expected ground invasion, but the regime forces and supporting militias did not make a qualitative progress.

7- Syrian opposition forces have accomplished significant progress in September, in the northern countryside of Hama and expanded the control including Halfaya, Souran, Taybat Al-Imam, Ma’ardes, Kawkab and several towns, villages and checkpoints, and up to Zain Al-Abedden mountain which is the strongest castle for the regime and it is not more than 10 km far from Hama.

8- On October ,16th.2016, factions of FSA supported by the Turkish army are taking control over the town of Dabeq in northern countryside of Aleppo, which is the town occupied an important place of ISIS propaganda because it will witness a decisive battle ends with its victory, according to the literature of the organization.

9-At the end of October, 2016, the opposition factions launched a massive offensive on the regime’s points in Aleppo in order to break the siege on the eastern neighborhoods of Aleppo, and they were able to make progress and taking control over Assad suburb.

10- Operation Euphrates Shield has launched by US support on November, 7th.2016, where the democratic forces of Syria which contains an alliance of Arab and Kurd factions, which people's protection units is its main base, announced launching the battle of Raqqa, which is he stronghold of ISIS northern of Syria, this operation was called ( Anger of Euphrates).

11- On November 27th.2016, the city of Al-Tal northern of Damascus, the city and camp of Khan Al-Sheh southern of Damascus agreed the conditions of the regime to take the armed opposition out of them, to be cities without people due to the siege, hunger and bombing , as what happened in Darya and Muadamiyat Al-Sham near Damascus.

12-On November 28th.2016, Inside Aleppo the city, regime forces controlled Al-Shakour neighborhood which allow Kurdish militias to make progress in several eastern neighborhoods such as, Be'edeen , Bustan Al-Basha , sheikh fares , Houllak Al-Fouqani , Ain Al-Ten factories and Zaytounat after the withdrawal of opposition forces from these areas , and entire north eastern part  of the city is out control of opposition forces.
These developments come within the attempts of Russia and Syrian regime to exploit the USA preoccupation with arrangement for new administration of president Trump after Obama.

13- ISIS controlled Palmyra again on december,10th.2016 after eight month of expulsion it out of the city by the regime and foreign militias.

14-The most prominent development during the last month in 2016 was the control of Assad forces and foreign militias on the eastern part of Aleppo after a military crackdown involving heavily both the regime aviation and Russian aviation

15- The ceasefire agreement started implementation at midnight of Thursday -Friday on December, 29th. 2016, with the continuous violations of truce by the regime forces and Hezbollah militias in Wadi Barada, northwest of Damascus.

The regime forces and foreign militias controlled several towns and cities around Damascus in the last month of 2016, and took armed opposition out of these cities, within the plan of the regime, Revolutionary Guards and Hezbollah to control all areas around the capital Damascus, and to empty all towns and cities which located along the supply roads, and which connected to areas of Hezbollah in Lebanon. 
Also, in the last month of 2016, the armed opposition signed agreement of ceasefire, and mechanism of monitoring, and started negotiation a few days after losing eastern Aleppo and exit of all fighters out of the city, to be a city out of conflict after five years of opposition control on its eastern part.
This military development was the largest penetration on the ground done by the regime and foreign militias, and the largest loss for opposition during the period of conflict with the regime, to start a new phase in 2016 which was called (post-Aleppo) or (post - immunization) of Damascus. 

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